Toshihiko Hara's A Shrinking Society: Post-Demographic Transition in Japan PDF
By Toshihiko Hara
This is often the booklet to target a brand new phenomenon rising within the twenty-first century: the speedily getting older and reducing inhabitants of a well-developed kingdom, specifically, Japan. The which means of this phenomenon has been effectively clarified because the attainable old end result of the demographic transition from excessive beginning and demise charges to low ones. Japan has entered the post-demographic transitional part and may be the fastest-shrinking society on the planet, best different Asian nations which are experiencing an identical drastic adjustments. the writer used the ancient data, compiled by means of the Statistic Bureau, Ministry of inner Affairs and Communications in 2006 and inhabitants projections for published in 2012 by way of the nationwide Institute of inhabitants and Social protection study, to teach the earlier and destiny improvement of the dependency ratio from 1891 to 2060. Then, using the inhabitants existence desk and web replica expense, the results of accelerating lifestyles expectancy and declining fertility at the dependency ratio have been saw individually. eventually, the ancient relationships between women’s survival premiums at reproductive age, the theoretical fertility expense to take care of the substitute point and the recorded overall fertility expense (TFR) have been analyzed. historic remark confirmed TFR adapting to the theoretical point of fertility with a definite time lag and similar to women’s survival premiums at reproductive age. Women’s expanding lifespan and survival premiums may have motivated determination making to lessen the chance of childbearing. whether the theoretical fertility expense meets the alternative point, women’s perspectives of minimizing the chance may perhaps stay unchanged simply because for girls the cost–benefit imbalance in childbearing remains to be too excessive in Japan. in response to the findings, the writer discusses the sustainability of eastern society when it comes to nationwide funds, social safety reform, family members regulations, immigration regulations and group polices.
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Extra resources for A Shrinking Society: Post-Demographic Transition in Japan (SpringerBriefs in Population Studies)
9 However, despite the conflict between traditional social pressures to maximize the number of births and the personal interest of women (and their children) to minimize the risk of childbearing/childcare, fertility rates decreased from Taishō period (1912–1926). Ultimately, the increase in female life expectancy from aged 40 to 70 years, decreased the average number of children per married woman from five to two. In this phase, increasing life expectancy and decreasing fertility reduced the proportion of children to the working age population.
2 Fertility Effects of the Rising Survival Rate of Women at Reproductive Age Increasing life expectancy could be seen as a rising survival rate for women at reproductive age. This could raise the total fertility rate (TFR) and net reproduction rate (NRR), if women do not take any additional birth control. In other words, the risk to have too many children would be higher. ” This period is between aged 15 and 49 (Jinkougaku Kenkyukai 2010, p. 79). Certainly, it is possible to have children out of this period but it is statistically negligible.
But the legacy of this welfare policy remains behind. The Japanese pension system is not based on the defined contribution (DC) plan but on the defined benefit (DB) plan. In a DC plan, contributions are paid into an individual account, which is used to provide retirement benefits. In short, the contributor would be the recipient of pension from his own contributions. This system is clear and easy to understand but it depends on one’s performance and the fund also faces security risk. By contrast, in a defined benefit DB plan, the pension is determined by a set of formula linked with wages, years of employment, age at retirement, etc.
A Shrinking Society: Post-Demographic Transition in Japan (SpringerBriefs in Population Studies) by Toshihiko Hara