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By Hector M Patmore
The oracle opposed to the King of Tyre, present in Ezekiel 28.12-19, is a tricky textual content that encouraged varied interpretations in past due Antiquity. for instance, in accordance with one rabbinic culture the textual content observed the 1st guy, Adam, whereas the Church Fathers present in an identical textual content an outline of the autumn of devil. This booklet experiences the rabbinic resources, patristic literature, the Targum, and the traditional translations, and seeks to appreciate the explanations for the various interpretation, the interplay among the exegetical traditions and the groups of interpreters, specifically among Jews and Christians, and the influence the explicit shape and wording of the textual content had at the formation and improvement of every interpretation.
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Additional info for Adam, Satan, and the King of Tyre: The Interpretation of Ezekiel 28:11-19 in Late Antiquity
Cf. Avery-Peck, ‘The Mishnah, Tosefta, and the Talmuds’, who explores the wider question of the relationship between the text and the tradition. 48 Strack and Stemberger, Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash, 213–4. On the dating see Avery-Peck, ‘The Mishnah, Tosefta, and the Talmuds,’ 198–203. ). But the priority of the identification of the two figures also seems the most likely historical scenario. That we find the identification of Hiram with the figure of Ezekiel’s oracles already in Mekhilta de Rabbi Ishmael must be taken as an indicator of its antiquity.
Tertullian Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, or simply Tertullian, one of the founding minds of Latin theology, is the earliest of our writers (c. )1 to take up Ezekiel 28, and to interpret it as referring to the origin of 1 For biography and further bibliography: Siniscalco, ‘Tertullian’; Moreschini and Norelli, Early Christian Greek and Latin Literature, Vol. 1, 332–57; Kannengiesser, Handbook of Patristic Exegesis, 593, 602–3, 606–7. 42 chapter three evil in the world. The passage occurs in Tertullian’s extensive denunciation of Marcion (entitled Against Marcion, composed between 207–208 ce),2 whose views are one of the most well known of all the early heresies.
Hiram’s inclusion in the quartet of blasphemers may be related to another tradition. e. Sanh. 95b); and according to Leviticus Rabbah, Hiram is the stepfather of Nebuchadnezzar at whose hand he suffered death: Another interpretation: When any man has an issue out of his flesh, etc. e. . —‘His judgement and destruction proceed from him’ refers to Nebuchadnezzar. R. Simon said: There is a traditional haggadah that Hiram was the husband of the mother of Nebuchadnezzar who stood against him and killed him; hence it is written, I brought forth fire from your midst, it consumed you (Ezek 28:18).
Adam, Satan, and the King of Tyre: The Interpretation of Ezekiel 28:11-19 in Late Antiquity by Hector M Patmore