Download e-book for kindle: Addiction and self-control : perspectives from philosophy, by Neil Levy
By Neil Levy
Dependancy turns out to contain an important measure of lack of keep watch over over behaviour, but it continues to be mysterious how this type of lack of keep an eye on happens and the way it may be appropriate with the retention of enterprise. This assortment, which arose out of a convention held on the college of Oxford, brings jointly philosophers, neuroscientists and psychologists with the purpose of figuring out this lack of keep watch over from a perspective expert via state of the art technology and philosophical reflection. Read more...
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Additional info for Addiction and self-control : perspectives from philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience
In older models of motivation deprivation states had a negative valence. Circumstances imposed needs on you, and you got pleasure from reducing them. Your appetites were like steam boilers, in which pressure was aversive and your motivation was to get rid of it. You would avoid deprivation states if you could and seek to remain in a Nirvana-like calm. A little thought revealed this model to be absurd. It would mean that people should eat to avoid hunger, and that the loss of sexual libido caused by certain medicines would be a benefit rather than an unfortunate side effect.
Thus, although picoeconomics convincingly relates the source of gambling’s attractiveness to the nature of the addict’s internal motivational conflict, it does not offer a fully satisfactory account of what distinguishes the addicted from the nonaddicted gambler. Here is where neuroscience can be called on to add crucial explanatory leverage. The basic currency of proximate reward for the relevant system in the brain is dopamine—more specifically, spikes of phasic dopamine uptake across receptors in the ventral striatum (VS).
The privation entailed in such activities is often such that we have to commit ourselves in advance—at least in resolution—because we would otherwise not choose them on the morning when we had to set out. It may be that there is no limit to this logic, that enormous deprivations can lead to enormous gains—some religions suggest giving away all our possessions and becoming mendicants—but as the deprivation required increases, fulcrums that provide the motivational leverage necessary to accept it become increasingly hard to find.
Addiction and self-control : perspectives from philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience by Neil Levy