Agricultural biotechnology and intellectual property: seeds - download pdf or read online
By Kesan, J. P. (Eds.)
This publication discusses the felony, agribusiness and public coverage matters that attach highbrow estate safety with developments in agricultural biotechnology. It has 24 chapters and an issue index. The ebook is meant as a reference for college kids and practitioners in highbrow estate and agribusiness, for these within the agricultural and highbrow estate attorneys. to be had In Print
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Extra info for Agricultural biotechnology and intellectual property: seeds of change
Xix) commented that ‘the recent example of Golden Rice shows that patented technologies need not necessarily be a barrier’. , 2003). Innovators generally do not file for patent protection in many developing countries, even where they could do so. , 2003). Finally, indigenously developed modern biotechnology has not been commercially applied in those countries yet. Patent-holders typically have little or no incentive to constrain upstream research. Prior to commercialization, little or no recoverable damages are generated.
Biosafety compliance, if at all achievable, can be very costly. Redenbaugh and McHughen (2004, p. 109) report these costs to be at least US$1 million per allele for both horticultural and field crops, if approval is sought solely for the USA. Cohen (2005, p. 25 million for transgenic papaya and soybeans in Brazil and rice in Costa Rica, respectively. He observes that ‘[p]aradoxically, because they are novel, locally developed products pose unique challenges for institutes seeking regulatory approval.
For public research, the direct incentive effects of patents, though possibly useful, are not as important as they are for the private sector, to the extent that support is available directly from public funds. Many policymakers and economists see a principal value of public sector patents as encouraging purchase and commercialization by the private sector. Supporters of the United States Bayh–Dole Act (1980), which broadened the ability of researchers to patent innovations supported with federal funding, emphasized this role of patenting.
Agricultural biotechnology and intellectual property: seeds of change by Kesan, J. P. (Eds.)